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Papacy

Papacy

Since the 12th century, the popes systematically expanded the papal institutions as the highest administrative authorities (Roman Curia) and highest ecclesiastical judicial authority (Inquisition). The papacy of the 12th and 13th centuries is characterized by the fight against the heretical movements in the West (Cathars, Waldensians) and the crusades with the aim of recapturing territories lost to Islam (especially in Palestine), but especially by its conflicts with the Staufer Friedrich I in the 12th century and Friedrich II. However, after…

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