Pakistan is an Islamic parliamentary republic in South Asia with the capital Islamabad. The core area of the country is the lowlands along the Indus, which merges to the east into the Thar desert. In the north, Pakistan is part of the high mountain ranges of the Hindu Kush, Karakoram and Himalayas. The mountainous lands of Balochistan rise to the west. The climate is subtropical-continental and generally very dry. Pakistan is one of the most populous countries in the world. With a high growth rate, the population has an average age of only 22 years. Almost two thirds of the predominantly Indo-Iranian-speaking residents live in rural areas. The largest cities are the metropolises of Karachi on the Arabian Sea and Lahore in the North. The inequality between a few large landowners and day laborers leads to social tensions. A large part of the multi-ethnic population professes Sunni Islam. Islam is the state religion and has a central position in society. When the state was founded in 1947, the country consisted of the two parts of West and East Pakistan, 1,500 km apart. In 1971 the eastern part separated and became independent as Bangladesh. Pakistan is a developing country where agriculture is the main economic sector. In the case of artificial irrigation, mainly rice and cotton are grown. The nuclear power Pakistan maintains close economic and political ties with China and the USA. Domestically, Islamist terrorism, poverty, corruption and nepotism as well as separatist movements are the biggest problem areas in Balochistan. The military is a powerful institution with political interests. Relations with the USA have cooled down due to the use of drones on Pakistani territory in the fight against Islamist terror. Relations with India are tense because of the unsolved Kashmir conflict and with Afghanistan because of the large number of refugees.
According to itypeauto, the uses and customs of Pakistan, with the exception of the external border regions, are very similar to those of the northern and western plains of India. To the west the Kāfir are settled, observing their own religion based on the cult of the ancestors. They wear typical costumes, the women wear the kupass, a headdress made of black cloth adorned with shells. Under the kupass they wear the shushut, a skullcap also adorned with shells. They live in stone houses, one on top of the other, without windows. They often get together to drink and dance: the grape harvest festivals and the Chitr Mast festival are very lively, in which the tribes choose from among the young people who will take care of the livestock of the whole community. On his return from the pasture in the spring, the biggest festival of the year will be celebrated: the Chirangash. Funerals are also occasions for celebrations and songs, according to the custom of many oriental peoples, and in such circumstances wine is drunk. Among the Dardi, a mountain population of the upper Himalayas, we find the caste system: rono (historical aristocracy), cin (warriors), yachkum (farmers and shepherds), krenis (artisans). The Burishki live in the valleys of the Hunza, which feed almost exclusively on fruit, fermented milk and little boiled meat. The fruit trees are given as a dowry to the girls. In the countryside all over Pakistan, life is regulated by traditions. Even today, girls marry around the age of ten, rarely beyond the age of fourteen. The average age of the groom is around 16, rarely over 24. Marriages are arranged by the ghatak who also contracts the dowry. Weddings give occasion to banquets and songs articulated in very long lullabies, often satirical towards the spouses and relatives. Fairs, festivals and markets are numerous. Among the most important fairs is the one held at Rāwalpindi and known as the Mēlā-Barī-Shāt-Latīf. It lasts seven days and includes wrestling competitions and theatrical performances. Still famous are the two festivals that take place annually in Lahore, one in the Shalimār gardens, the other in the hamlet of Mian Mir. But among all the feasts the one celebrating the end of ramḍā’n triumphs. It is called Eid-ul-Fitr. They are three days of joy throughout the Islamic world, in which gifts are exchanged. All ‘ Eid follows the apple, fair of joy in which kathak is danced in a circle, an expression of the great love for dance spread throughout the country. The Kathak is a dance of the warrior origin and has its leading experts in the tribes of pathani. Young people share the passion for sport, especially for polo, hockey and cricket, which seem to have originated here. Craftsmanship is very popular: carpets, silk slippers, weapons (of which all make an ostentation), ceramics. The cuisine of Pakistan, rather modest, is almost uniform throughout the country; the national dish is fried rice with mutton and spices.