According to topschoolsintheusa, the kingdom of Norway is formed by the north-western part of the Scandinavian peninsula, by the Svalbard archipelago (Spitsbergen archipelago, Bear Island and all the other islands between 74 ° and 81 ° lat. Norway and 10 ° and 35 ° ° long. E.), from Jan Mayen Island in the Arctic Ocean and from Antarctic possessions (Bouvet Island, in the South Atlantic; Peter I Island, in the South Pacific). Norway proper extends from 57 ° 58 ′ lat. Norway (the southernmost point is a small island opposite Mandal) at 71 ° 11 ′ lat. Norway (a point on Magerøy Island to the West of the North Cape), and from 4 ° 30 ′ long. E. (mouth of the Sognefjord) at 31 ° 10 ′ long. E. (an island close to Vardø). On the mainland, the northernmost tip is represented by Cape Nordkyn; the westernmost from Cape Stad; the southernmost from Cape Lindesnes. TO Norway, NO. and S. Norway is surrounded by the Arctic Ocean, the Norwegian Sea and the North Sea; to E. it borders with Sweden (for 1650 km.) and with Finland (for 920 km.). A peculiar feature of Norway is its longitudinal development (1800 km; Italy has 1135 km); its longest axis is oriented from SSO. to NNE. The southern part is wider (up to 430 km.), The northern part is very narrow, so much so that at the bottom of the Ofotenfjord it is reduced to 8 km. The total area is 386,371 sq km, distributed as follows: Norway proper: 322,681 sq km; Svalbard archipelago: 62,920 sq km; Jan Mayen Island: 372 sq. km .; Bouvet Island: approximately 148 sq km; Pietro I island: about 250 sq. km.
Flora and vegetation. – In relation to the uniformity of the geological constitution, the flora of Norway is not very varied. In the high schistose mountains there are representatives of the arctic flora: Dryas octopetala, Salix reticulata, Carex rupestris, Thalictrum alpinum, and their main stations are the mountains to the East. of Folgefonn, the Hardanger, the Dovrefjell massif and the Finnmarken peaks. The flora of Norway can be divided into three groups: subarctic, Atlantic and subatlantic. The first occupies the wet valleys and plateaus: angelica, Mulgedium alpinum, aconite, Valeriana sambucifolia, Struthiopteris germanica are the main characteristic species, which adapt well to the climate of the region. The second group is located near Bergen, and is characterized by: holly, foxglove, Erica cinerea, Bunium flexuosum, Hymenophyllum Wilsoni, Hypericum pulchrum, Polystichum oreopteris, etc. The plants of the third group are found in the lower and southern territories of the province of Oslo and the main species are: Gentiana pneumonanthe, Sanguisorba officinalis, Petasites alba, Teucrium scorodonia, etc.
These groups form colonies scattered on the surface of the territory: thus the arctic flora appears in small colonies separated by vast spaces occupied by the subarctic one. Subarctic flora extends around the Oslo fiord, Lake Miøsa, the edge of the sheltered coves of the west coast fjords and northern Norway. The Atlantic flora dominates in the low coasts unevenly scattered on the North Sea coast: on the other hand the sub-natural flora is isolated near the Oslo fiord and the sub-Atlantic on the coast of the Kristiansand province.
The forests cover an area of about 64,000 sq km, western Norway is poor in forests and the islands of skjærgård are devoid of arboreal vegetation, except for some dwarf and stunted trees. The main forest species are Pinus silvestris and Abies excelsa, which can reach a height of 27-28 m.
The Betula odorata is everywhere, the ‘ Alnus incana goes up to Finnmark, instead l’ A. glutinous it does not reach the 64th lat. Norway The beech barely reaches the 61 ° lat. Norway forming small woods around Tønsberg and Arendal; oak grows around Arendal, Bergen and Romsdal, while walnut advances as far as Stegen and elm does not surpass 67 ° lat. Norway The ash tree is limited to the Moldefjord and the lime tree grows on the west coast. The rowan of the birds, sacred tree of the Finns, like the birch, resists the greatest cold and is very widespread. Juniper is rare and lives around 1500 m. high. Wild cherry is found in the interior of Finnmark and raspberry and bramble grow in the SW; the latter does not exceed the 62 ° lat. Norway
Fauna. – The fauna of Norway includes characteristic elements of the northern European fauna. Among the Mammals we will mention, for the bats, the barbastello and the northern noctule; among the insectivores, the European mole; among the Carnivores, the lynx, the fox, the wolf, the marten, the ermine, the common otter. Among the ungulates, the deer and the fallow deer; among the Rosicanti, the baby octopus, the Norwegian hare, various mice, etc. The birds are represented by a fair number of species including the crane, the snipe, the gurnard, the coot, the francolin, the black grouse, the sea eagle and various other birds of prey, the wood pigeon, the cuckoo, the lesser woodpecker, jay, hoopoe, etc. Reptiles are scarce, with some species of ophidium and saurian; also the scarce Amphibis and among these the common frog and some toads. Various fish populate the fresh waters. Numerous insects, especially the Beetles of the Caribbean group. The terrestrial molluscs are discreetly represented.
Natural divisions. – Norway can be divided into three sections separated by mountain barriers: southeastern, western and northern Norway. Minor subdivisions are also possible, based on surface relief and climatic conditions: 1. districts around the Oslofjord; 2. Oplandene; 3. Sørlandet, 4. Vestlandet, O. dei Langfjellene; 5. Trøndelag; 6. Nordland; 7. Finnmark.