Estonia – key data
Area: 45,228 km² (of which land: 42,388 km², water: 2,840 km). The area of Estonia includes around 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea.
Population: 1.3 million (2011 estimate, CIA). Composition: Estonians 67.9%, Russians 25.6%, Ukrainians 2.1%, Belarusians 1.3%, Finns 0.9%, others 2.2% (2000 census)
Population density: 28 people per km²
Population growth: -0.641% per year (2011, CIA)
Capital: Tallin (403.505 residents, 2006)
Highest point: Suur Munamagi, 318 m
Lowest point: Baltic Sea, 0 m
Form of government: Estonia has been a republic since February 24, 1918 (declaration of independence from the Russian Empire). Between 1941 and 1944, Estonia was occupied by troops from Germany, then by the Soviet Union. On August 20, 1991, Estonia regained its independence. The constitution dates from 1992. The Estonianhouses of Parliamentconsists of 101 MPs. Estonia has been a member of the EU since May 1, 2004.
Administrative division: 15 districts (Maakond, plural: Maakonnad) Harju (Tallinn administrative center), Hiiu (Kardla), Ida-Viru (Johvi), Jarva (Paide), Jogeva (Jogeva), Laane (Haapsalu), Laane-Viru (Rakvere), Parnu (Parnu), Polva (Polva), Rapla (Rapla), Saare (Kuressaare), Tartu (Tartu), Valga (Valga), Viljandi (Viljandi) and Voru (Voru)
Head of State: President Toomas Hendrik Ilves, since October 9, 2006
Head of Government: Prime Minister Andrus Ansip, since April 12, 2005
Language: the official language is Estonian. Distribution: Estonian 67.3%, Russian 29.7%, other 2.3%, no information 0.7% (2000 census)
R eligion: Lutheran 13.6%, Orthodox 12.8%, other Christian (including Methodist, Seventh-Day Adventists, Roman Catholic, Pfingstkirche) 1.4%, konfessionslos 34.1% Other 32%, no Figures 6.1% (2000 census)
Local time: CET +1 h. Between the last Sunday in March and the last Sunday in October, Estonia has summer time (CET + 2 hours).
The time difference to Central Europe in both winter and summer +1 hour.
International phone code: +372
Mains voltage: 220 V, 50 Hz. The Euro standard plugs usually fit, but the Schuko plugs not always.
The Republic of Estonia is the northernmost of the three Baltic States and, with its total area of around 45,200 square kilometers, is one of the smallest countries in Europe. Estonia borders Latvia to the south and Russia to the east, this border largely running through Lake Peipus, the largest lake in the country. The Gulf of Finland forms the natural border in the north and Estonia borders the in the west Baltic Sea which is called “West Lake” in this country. Visit printerhall for Estonia Geography.
Estonia is at the same geographical latitude as the southern oneS weden, Northern Scotland and the south coast of Alaska, which gives the country a more Northern European character.
The water is the predominant element in Estonia not only because of the Baltic Sea. The Estonian national territory includes over 1,500 islands and islets, most of which are uninhabited. Saaremaa, Hiiumaa and Muhu are the largest islands and lie off the west coast of Estonia, which has a total coastline of 3,800 kilometers due to the numerous bays, islands and peninsulas.
There is also no shortage of lakes in Estonia, so that there are around 1,200 lakes, most of which are located in the higher south of the country. The number 1,500 appears again and again, but the term “lake” is also equated with pond or pond. The number of larger and smaller rivers and streams, which is given as 7,000, is also important. The Pärnu and Emajogi are two of the most important rivers in the country. In addition, about 20% of the total area of Estonia is covered with swamps and moors, many of which are protected. Lake Peipus is also one of the largest lakes in Europe at 3,550 square kilometers.
The west of Estonia was covered by glaciers for the longest time during the last ice age and then by sea water for many centuries, which is why this region is very shallow. Kilometers of ice masses lowered the ground about 20,000 years ago, but due to tectonic activity it rises by about two millimeters annually. Estonia can be described as overall flat, averaging around 50 meters above sea level, while the Estonian capital Tallinn is just 44 meters above sea level. While the north coast of the country is rather stony, in the west you will find the most beautiful beaches, sandbanks and dunes in the country.
The highest elevation Estonia is the 318 meter high Suur Munamagi in the southeast of the country. Here are the Sakala, Otepää and Haanja ridges, while the hills of the Pandivere highlands rise to the north. Here the limestone also forms the subsoil of northern Estonia, which is replaced by sandstone towards the south. The most remarkable form of rock in Estonia is the Baltic glint, a type of limestone that runs along the Gulf of Finland and reaches a maximum height of 55 meters in the northeast.
About 40% of Estonia is made up of pine and spruce forests because the originally grown deciduous forests were cut down a long time ago with a few exceptions. A few centuries-old oaks and linden trees are venerated as “sacred trees” and are under special protection. Many animal species such as bears, lynxes and flying squirrels also find good conditions here, which are particularly found in wildlife parks and nature reserves.