Since the end of the Second World War, the study of the most remote regions of the continent has intensified, especially by means of photography from the plane. From photomosaics and more recent maps it was estimated in 1958 that the surface of Queensland is 9061 km 2 smaller than what was thought; the official estimate is now 1,726,521 km 2. The detailed study of selected regions of tropical Australia is entrusted to the appropriate division (Land Research and Regional Survey) of the CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization). The cartography of agricultural land is entrusted to the specific division (Soils Division) of the same organization, located in Adelaide. The collection of climatic data and the forecast of the weather are done by the Meteorological service, but the study of meteorological physics is now carried out by another division of the CSIRO. thanks to oil surveys.
Recently verified climatic extremes are the wettest year (1950 in Tully, Queensland) with 7897 mm and the lowest minimum temperature (at the Charlotte Pass, in the Australian Alps) with −22 ° C. Evaporation has been estimated for the whole continent, from a minimum of 500 mm per year in Tasmania to over 2750 in the interior north of the tropic; in this latter area, therefore, evaporation is about 10 times the amount of average rainfall.
Population data. – The population was surveyed in 1947 and 1954, when there were 8,986,873 people (with a slight prevalence of males over females). The annual increase from 1933 to 1947 was 0.96%, from 1947 to 1954 rose to 2.46%, among the highest in the world. The largest annual increase (3.51%) was due to Western Australia among the states, and to the territory of Canberra (8.70%) among the federal territories. In absolute terms, New South Wales is in first place with an increase of 438,691 people over the seven years, followed by Victoria with 397,640. In 1959 the Australian population was estimated at 10,008,665 people (in 1958 there were 5,029,275 males and 4,922,343 females). Among the states, the greatest density, apart from the territory of the capital, belongs to Victoria, followed by Tasmania and New South Wales. The other states have densities of less than 1 residents per km2. In the Northern Territory the density is just 15 residents per 1000 km 2. Across Australia, males outnumber females: very little (0.33%) in New South Wales, more (4.81%) in Queensland and (5.51%) in Western Australia, where they are large uncomfortable tropical areas; this situation is accentuated in the Northern Territory where males outnumber females by 26.54%. In the territory of the capital this surplus is 14.81% due to the presence of celibate officials or those with families residing elsewhere.
According to MCAT-TEST-CENTERS, urbanism has increased, and in 1954 as many as 54% of the population resided in state capitals, compared with 25% in other cities and 21% in the countryside. Victoria then had 62.15% of the population in Melbourne, and South Australia 60.66% in Adelaide. The proportion exceeds 54% in Western Australia and New South Wales. In Queensland it is 38.10% and in Tasmania 30.84%. In each case, the population of the metropolises has a female majority. In 1959 the metropolises (including suburbs) had the following population: Sydney 2,054,800, Melbourne 1,777,700, Brisbane 567,000, Adelaide 562,500, Perth 389,000, Hobart 109,000; Canberra had 43,973 residents. In 1958 the great metallurgical-chemical centers of Newcastle and Wollongong had 192,940 and 112,390 residents respectively; it was followed by the industrial center of Geelong with 85,190 residents. Launceston in Tasmania and Ballarat in Victoria were just over 50,000, Toowoomba, Townsville, Rockhampton and Ipswich in Queensland, Cessnock in New South Wales and Bendigo in Victoria were just over 40,000; note that Cessnock and Ipswich are almost exclusively coal mining centers, and that Townsville and Rockhampton have a tropical climate.
The natural average annual increase of the Australian population is around 14 per thousand, higher than the European figures but lower than the American ones; in 1958 there were 222,504 births and 83,723 deaths, thus giving a natural increase of 138,781 people, among which females had a majority of 7%. Thanks to immigration, however, the total increase in the population in 1958 rose to 204,147 people. Arrivals rose to 230,264 people, against 164,898 departures, with a net toll of 65,366 people, for the first time in recent history of Australian immigration with a slight female majority. In the five-year period 1946-50, 701,920 people arrived in Australia, in the five-year period 1951-55, 1,027,866 arrived, and this figure will probably be exceeded in the five-year period 1956-60.
The picture of the migratory movement is quite complex, and we can distinguish the temporary elements (about 60,000 Australians returning from overseas trips, and as many tourists, traders and other travelers) from the 110,000 new arrivals who plan to settle in Australia. On the exit side, in addition to departing Australian travelers and visitors returning home, there are over 40,000 people who “declare that they want to reside abroad for more than a year”, but who are actually largely immigrants who they return to their homeland. They are mostly disappointed, disheartened or repentant, and it is interesting to note that the English are the majority of these, although they have not encountered the various difficulties, especially that of the language, which immigrants from other European countries have to overcome. Thus in 1956 there were 155,136 arrivals from British countries, but there were also 124,793 departures of the same nationality, leaving a net increase of 30,342 people of British descent. In the same year, the Italian arrivals were 28,521 and the Italians who left 3,376, with a net increase of 25,145.
The net migratory increase of the Australia in the three-year period 1956-58 there were 82,435 British, 49,298 Italians, 2,938 Greeks, 21,229 Dutch, 12,636 Germans, 12,248 Hungarians (of which 11,292 in 1957 alone), 5,432 Austrians, 3,344 Yugoslavs, in addition to 12,220 stateless persons and 16,316 others Nationality. There is a net negative balance only among groups that immigrated immediately after the war: the departures of Czechoslovakians, Ukrainians, Lithuanians, Latvians and Estonians exceeded the arrivals of these nationalities, but only by 330 people in all. In 1956-58 immigration gave a net contribution of 238,096 people, and from 1946 to 1958 the net contribution was 1,005,004 people, therefore equal to the great movements of peoples of the past. Note that the great migratory impulse, initiated by AA Calwell, Labor Minister of Immigration, it continued with equal vigor by the liberal government. The immigration and citizenship laws were revised and codified in 1958; the deadline for acquiring citizenship is always a minimum of 5 years. Various international agreements are in force for the facilitation of immigration in Australia: with the United Kingdom (from 1946), with the IRO (from 1947 to 1951, with a total net immigration of 170,700 people returning from Nazi deportation camps), with Ireland and Malta (since 1948), with Holland and Italy (since 1951), with Germany, Austria and Greece (since 1952), always in agreement with the CIME. Note that these agreements are always short-term but renewable by mutual agreement.